Design suitable and you can diagnostics
We fit our Bayesian state-space model, consisting of both movement and observation process components, using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We assigned uninformative priors whenever there were no a priori expectations about the relationships of the model parameters and the movement behavior states (see Appendix S1). letter,t) within each iteration of the MCMC algorithm (see Appendix S2). We initialized six chains from random starting values drawn from the prior distributions. After initial pilot tuning and burn-in, we ran the chains until the univariate Gelman–Rubin potential scale reduction factor (PSRF) for monitored parameters was <1.2 and effective sample sizes exceeded 4000. This required about 6 million iterations per chain, where 1 million iterations for each parallel chain required about 100 h using six cores of a 3.7-GHz processor. Data and code can be found in Data S1.
Based on posterior settings having condition assignments, we found such bearded seals invested 70% of the Leeds adult hookup implementation episodes from the benthic foraging condition (B). They hauled out on ice (county I) and you can rested within sea (condition S) from inside the approximately equal dimensions, however, there is certainly a definite seasonal component in craft spending plans certainly the fresh hauled out on freeze (I), benthic foraging (B), and you will transportation (T) says one coincided towards summer haven and you will winter months improve off ocean frost from the Arctic (Table 2). All the seals showed extreme benthic foraging along side continental shelves out of the Chukchi or Beaufort waters due to the fact sea freeze receded northward into the the summer. We discovered hardly any proof of these ice-relevant seals dragging out on house, regardless of if near the coastline in mostly frost-free period during summer. Interestingly, a grown-up men briefly moved northern of your own Beaufort coastal bookshelf inside late and you can was predicted to possess hauled from the fresh falling-out ocean freeze boundary anywhere between bouts out of middle-liquids foraging about better seas of one’s Canada Basin (Fig. 2). You can expect reveal cartoon regarding predicted actions and you can condition tasks for all seals relative to bathymetry and you may sea freeze safeguards inside the Appendix S3.
- There have been regular differences in pastime spending plans anywhere between “summer” (away from marking inside the late Summer and very early July so you’re able to 31 Sep), “autumn” (step 1 Oct in order to 29 December), and you will “winter” (step one January up until level losses between February and you can April) one coincided toward south progress away from wintertime sea frost within the the newest Cold. Passion funds information was determined according to research by the posterior setting out-of date invested for the per county which have all the way down (LCI) and top (UCI) legitimate times considering 95% large posterior density. Individual seal pastime costs are included in Appendix S4.
As expected, the resting states (I, S, and L) exhibited shorter step lengths, no directional persistence, and lower proportions of each time step diving >4 m below the surface based on state-specific parameter estimates (Fig. 3; see Appendix S4 for posterior sumeters). Both the mid-water foraging (M) and transit (T) states exhibited longer step lengths, lower proportions of dry time, and higher proportions of diving >4 m below the surface. Only the transit state exhibited strong directional persistence, but state M exhibited moderate directional persistence for some individuals (Fig. 3). The benthic foraging (B) state generally exhibited moderate step lengths, no directional persistence, lower proportions of dry time, higher proportions of diving >4 m below the surface, and considerably higher benthic dive counts (posterior median for ?B = 41.4; 95% highest posterior density interval: 41.2–41.7). The resting (?I = ?S = ?L = 9.7; 95% HPDI: 9.4–10.0) and transit (?T = 15.0; 95% HPDI: 14.5–15.5) states exhibited moderate benthic dive counts, while the mid-water foraging state generally had the lowest benthic dive counts (?M = 1.5; 95% HPDI: 1.3–1.7; Fig. 3). The moderate benthic dive counts for the resting and transit states could be attributable to mid-interval state switches, but there certainly could have been opportunistic benthic foraging during transit. There also could have been high-speed, directionally persistent benthic dives while transiting in relatively shallow shelf waters.